Exercise 5: The ruins of Great Zimbabwe


It was built on a hill with terraces all around and a palace complex in the center and a city leading down into the valley. The location is 30 kilometers south-east of Masvingo.


It was built for the king and his priests and soldiers. From the time of the iron age, many people moved there causing it to overpopulate.


Due to overpopulation, they expanded down into the valley. In the fourth century, the first people settled there and started to work on the now ruined city of Great Zimbabwe.


Research has proven that no foreigners helped in the construction of Great Zimbabwe.


It was discovered in the 1870s and the rumor was started that it was the source of King Solomons gold and since then diggers, looters, and murderers made it the way it is today

The Africans did build it themselves and it is genius.



Exercise 4: The history of Bollywood

Advent: The beginning of sound

Indigenous: Local or new their own

Lucrative: Rich or money dense

Exponentially: A lot, immensely

Irrevocably: Completely, irreversibly


Went nuts over: Went crazy, loved it

Ultimate chocolate-box hero: Loving the hero

Strutted their steroid-enhanced stuff: Strutted their excessively muscular bodies


Everybody could understand, there were no language barriers because of the multitude of languages that they have.


Romantic chick flix.


It started in 1896 with short films. D.G. Phalke was inspired by The Life Of Christ that he saw in London in 1913. Raja Harishchandra was the first feature film by D.G. Phalke. Silent film became popular because it bridged the hundreds of language barriers. The Indian upper class moved between England and India causing film to boom.

1931 sound came to the Indian cinema and song and dance became popular and split the industry along the language lines Hindi, Tamil, and Telegu. Sound prevented western films from being exhibited and isolation came to Indian cinemas. This allowed for a boom in the Indian film industry. In the 1930s many film studios existed but with independent studios ‘popping up’ they went out of business.

The 1940s saw the emergence of the ‘playback singer’. The 1950s became the golden age of the  Indian cinema with world-renowned films still remembered today. The 1960s saw the dawn of the brightly coloured romances. The 1970s the ultimate chocolate-box hero was born Amitabh Bachchan.

The 1980s saw a decline in the popularity of the film industry due to the disco era. In the early 1990s saw a return of the romantic films and the birth of ‘filmi’ music videos.

The new millennium has brought on challenges as never seen before and depending on the industry’s adaptability will ensure its success.


“All of which only get better with time” The writer believes that the films only get better with time.

“Steroid-enhanced stuff”  The writer disapproves of how the actors were built at the time.




Exercise 3: Tiger Leaping Gorge

1)  Ethereal, meaning unreal and delicate mist.

Equine vertigo saying that horses aren’t afraid of heights.

Serenely, an immensely calming view.

Bleached brown boulders, bleached by the water, sun or bird feces.

Doctored, meaning the water bottle was modified to keep the mobile phone safe from the weather.

Trauma referring to the stress of crossing the river.

2)  There is no meat and the food is modern for the area.

3)  It seemed to be possible that a tiger could make the leap from one side of the gorge to the other.

4)  The water’s current is too strong for the boat to go upstream.

5)  “This morning an ethereal mist lingers over the mountains” I chose this one because the mist is always calming. Next, I chose “It’s a serenely calming view” because the writer says how calming the view is.

“I’m most concerned about the horses but they’re a lot more sure-footed than I am” that’s how sketchy the trail is over the mountains. “Then we’re descending fast on steep and potentially lethal tracks of crumbling chalky rock past rhododendron bushes.” the writer says how unstable the rocks are that they are walking on.

Exercise 2: From the Clyde to Sandy Hook

1) The quality of the accommodation was that of a farm animal’s “pen”
causing the residents to get just as ill as the animals on a farm would.

2) “Rough billows” meaning the large rough waves that would crash into the
ship’s hull.

3) The song that was sung is sad and regretful, relevant to the current

4) I chose “cloudless”, meaning the sky is “cloudless”, compared to the
previous night. Next, I chose “fair”, meaning that the wind wasn’t as hectic
as the wind from the day before. And lastly, I chose “companionable” for the
sails that were calm and still.

5) Firstly there is a difference in weather and their direct circumstances with
phrases like “The wind hauled ahead” and “Violent phases of change”.
Both these phrases show how dire and desperate their circumstances are.
Whereas the phrases “A new world indeed” and “Highest possible spirits”
creates a completely opposite atmosphere in the second part of the passage.

In the people, the desperation is created by the phrases “Scarcely human
noises of the sick joined into a kind of farmyard chorus” and
“Discomfortable thoughts and sensations”. A peaceful and relaxed atmosphere
in the second part is illustrated with phrases like “Stories and laughter
went around” and “His reels and jigs and ballads”.

6) I chose “the steamer”, “foeter” and “hame”. “The steamer” because we
don’t use steamers in the modern world. The only steamers that you will see
nowadays, are in museums and at the bottom of the sea. Next, I chose “hame”
and “foeter” because they are so old they must be from old English which is
more than a hundred years deadish.